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A

The sampling of the blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arteries, as opposed to the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in venous blood. Typically, the acidity, or pH, of the blood is measured simultaneously in ABG sampling.

Blood tests that classify human blood into one of four groups: A, B, O, or AB.

A decreased amount of circulating red blood cells in the body. Anaemia may result from blood loss, destruction of red blood cells, or a decrease in the production of red blood cells. The haemoglobin level is decreased in patients with anaemia.

An antibody is a protein produced by the immune system in response to specific antigens. Antibodies help the body fight organisms that cause infection and any foreign substances.

An antigen is a substance usually found on the surface of cells that identifies the cell as “self” or “non-self”. The antigen causes an immune response through antibody production against the antigen.

An arteriogram is a radiologic study (x-ray) or picture of the arteries in an organ system that is visualized through a special dye that is infused in the blood stream.

The process of determining how organs are distributed. Allocation includes the system of policies and guidelines which ensure that organs are distributed in an equitable, ethical and medically sound manner

An allograft is a transplant of an organ or tissue that comes from another person.

An aneurysm or aneurism is a ballooning or weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel. As it increases in size, the risk of rupture increases, which can lead to internal bleeding and death.

Medicines that reduce or prevent the body’s ability to reject a transplanted organ or tissue.

A common condition and an abnormal one in which acid in the stomach rises up into the esophagus. This occurs because the valve separating the contents of the stomach from the esophagus does not function properly.

Inflammation of the breathing tubes within the lungs (bronchial tubes or bronchi) as a result of an infection (viral or bacterial) or a chemical irritant (such as smoke or gastric acid reflux). The inflammation causes swelling of the lining of these breathing tubes, narrowing the tubes and promoting secretion of inflammatory fluid. Most commonly, acute bronchitis is due to a viral infection. Common viruses that cause bronchitis include the rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the influenza virus. Symptoms are a cough that begins abruptly and can include a runny nose, nasal stuffiness, and sore throat. As opposed to acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition with a daily cough with sputum production for at least three months, two years in a row. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for the development of both acute and chronic bronchitis. See also chronic bronchitis.

Alternative medicine is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical therapists, practice. Alternative medicine is used in place of standard medical care. An example is treating heart disease with chelation therapy (which seeks to remove excess metals from the blood) instead of using a standard approach. Examples of alternative practices include homeopathy, traditional medicine, chiropractic, and acupuncture. Complementary medicine is different from alternative medicine. Whereas complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine, alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine.

The hypersensitive response of the immune system of an allergic individual to a substance.

When an allergen enters the body, it causes the body’s immune system to develop an allergic reaction in a person with an allergy to it. This reaction can occur when the immune system attacks a normally harmless substance (the allergen). The immune system calls upon a protective antibody called immunoglobulin E or IgE to fight these invading substances. Even though everyone has some IgE, an allergic person has an unusually large army of these IgE defenders -in fact, too many for their own good. This army of IgE antibodies attacks and engages the invading army of allergic substances of allergens. As is often the case in war, innocent bystanders are affected by this battle. These innocent bystanders are special cells called mast cells. When a mast cell is injured or irritated, it releases a variety of strong chemicals, including histamine, into the tissues and blood that promote allergic reactions. These chemicals are very irritating and cause itching, swelling, and fluid leaking from nearby cells. These allergic chemicals can cause muscle spasm and can lead to lung airway and throat tightening as is found in asthma and loss of voice. They are also what leads to the familiar hay fever or allergic rhinitis and common pink eye.

A substance that causes lack of feeling or awareness, dulling pain to permit surgery and other painful procedures.

An outpouching of an abnormally thin portion of the heart wall. Cardiac aneurysms tend to involve the left ventricle because the blood there is under the greatest pressure.

An X-ray image of blood vessels. The vessels can be seen because a contrast dye within them blocks the X-rays from developing an imaging film.

An abnormal and irregular heart rhythm in which electrical signals are generated chaotically throughout the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. Many people with atrial fibrillation have no symptoms. Among those who do, the most common symptom is an uncomfortable awareness of the rapid and irregular heartbeat (palpitations). Atrial fibrillation can promote the formation of blood clots that travel from the heart to the brain, resulting in stroke. Treatment of atrial fibrillation involves risk-factor control, use of medications to slow the heart rate and/or convert the heart to
normal rhythm, and prevention of blood clots. Also known as auricular fibrillation.

A dire form of cardiac arrest in which the heart stops beating and there is no electrical activity in the heart. As a result, the heart is at a total standstill.

An immunoglobulin, a specialized immune protein, produced because of the introduction of an antigen into the body, and which possesses the remarkable ability to combine with the very antigen that triggered its production.

The production of antibodies is a major function of the immune system and is carried out by a type of white blood cell called a B cell (B lymphocyte). Antibodies can be triggered by and directed at foreign proteins, microorganisms, or toxins. Some antibodies are autoantibodies and home in against our own tissues.

The term “antibody” dates to 1901. Prior to that time, an “antibody” referred to any of a host of different substances that served as “bodies” (foot soldiers) in the fight against infection and its ill effects.

B

Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent on another organism for life). The plural of bacterium. Examples of bacteria include Acidophilus, a normal inhabitant of yogurt; Gonococcus which causes gonorrhea; Clostridium welchii, the most common cause of gangrene; E. coli, which lives in the colon and can cause disease elsewhere; and Streptococcus, the bacterium that causes the common throat infection called strep throat.

A painful, often reddened area of degenerating, ulcerated skin that is caused by pressure and lack of movement and is worsened by exposure to urine or other irritating substances. Untreated bedsores can become seriously infected or gangrenous. Bedsores are a major problem for patients who are confined to a bed or wheelchair, and they can be prevented by moving the patient frequently, changing bedding, and keeping the skin clean and dry.

B cells are a type of lymphocyte, or white blood cell, that develop in the spleen and are responsible for the body’s immunity. B cells produce antibodies which help fight infection and foreign substances.

A biopsy is a procedure that removes a small amount of tissue from an organ, tumour, bone, or other tissue from the body to find out more information about that organ or tissue. A heart biopsy is performed to examine heart tissue. A tiny cylinder of tissue, showing heart cells and how they are arranged, is removed. This tissue is examined under the microscope y a pathologist to look for any evidence of rejection or infection in the transplanted heart.

A test that indicates kidney function. The BUN is a product of protein breakdown, or waste product, normally excreted by the kidney.

The arteries, veins, and capillaries through which blood circulates. Blood vessels can be donated and transplanted.

Dense tissue that forms the skeleton and supports the body. Bone can be donated and transplanted.

A thick liquid substance found in the body’s hollow bones, such as leg, arm and hip bones. Marrow consists of cells that develop into blood cells (platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells). Marrow for transplant is usually collected from the pelvic bone.

Brain death occurs when the brain is totally and irreversibly non-functional. Brain death is caused by not enough blood supply of oxygen which causes the brain cells to die.

The period after a loss during which grief is experienced and mourning occurs. The duration of bereavement depends on both how attached the person was to the person (or pet) who died, and the amount of preparation time anticipating the loss.

A class of drugs that block the effect of beta-adrenergic substances such as adrenaline (epinephrine), that play a key role in the sympathetic portion of the involuntary nervous system. By blocking the action of the sympathetic nervous system on the heart, they slow the heartbeat and relieve stress on the heart. Beta blockers are used to treat abnormal heart rhythms, specifically to prevent abnormally fast heart rates (tachycardias) or irregular heart rhythms, such as premature ventricular beats. Because beta blockers reduce the demand of the heart muscle for oxygen, they can be useful in treating angina. They have also become important drugs in improving survival after a heart attack. Due to their effect on blood vessels, beta blockers can lower the blood pressure and are of value in the treatment of hypertension.

The name of a company in Berlin, Germany and of a ventricular assist device it makes. The device works by helping the right ventricle of the heart to pump blood to the lungs and the left ventricle to pump blood to the body. The Berlin Heart comes in various sizes for a range of patients, including newborn babies. The bulk of the device is extracorporeal (outside the body). Only the tubes are implanted. They emerge from small openings to enter the pump, a small round chamber. The system is run by a laptop computer. The Berlin Heart is intended to be used as a bridge to recovery or as a bridge to a transplant.

A type of cell in the pancreas (the organ of the digestive system located behind the stomach). Within the pancreas, the beta cells are located in areas called the islets of Langerhans. They constitute the predominant type of cell in the islets. The beta cells are important because they make insulin. Degeneration of the beta cells is the main cause of type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities.

An aortic valve in the heart that has two flaps (cusps) that open and close. A normal aortic valve in the heart has three flaps. There may be no symptoms of bicuspid aortic valve in childhood, but in time the valve may become narrowed, making it harder for blood to pass through it, or blood may start to leak backward through the valve (regurgitate). Treatment depends on how the valve is working. For a severely deteriorated valve, replacement surgery may be necessary.

A test designed to detect if microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi are present in blood. A sample of blood obtained using sterile technique is placed in a culture media and incubated in a controlled environment for 1 to 7 days. If microorganisms grow, they can be identified as to type and tested against different antibiotics for proper treatment of the infection. Because microorganisms may only be intermittently present in blood, a series of 3 blood cultures is usually done before the result is considered negative.

Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It can be measured using a special x-ray called a quantitative computed tomogram.

The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains fat and immature and mature blood cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Diseases or drugs that affect the bone marrow can affect the total counts of these cells.

The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains fat and immature and mature blood cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Diseases or drugs that affect the bone marrow can affect the total counts of these cells.

The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains fat and immature and mature blood cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Diseases or drugs that affect the bone marrow can affect the total counts of these cells.

C

A mineral measured in the blood that is required for bone growth and for blood clotting. It is also needed for the heart and nerves to function.

A flexible tube that enters or exits the body. Catheters may be used to drain body fluids (a urinary catheter drains urine) or to administer fluids or medications through a vein (a central venous catheter).

A form of fat that performs necessary functions in the body but can also cause heart disease; cholesterol is found in animal foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and dairy products.

Having a disease for a long period of time. Chronic disease may worsen slowly7 over time. It may be treatable but is usually not reversible.

The process of blood clotting. A variety of factors are necessary for the blood to have a normal clotting ability. Clotting ability is assessed by several blood tests including the prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and platelet count.

Decreased ability of the blood to clot which increases the risk of bleeding, particularly with surgery or any invasive procedures such as biopsies.

A blood test that measures many parts of your blood count including the haemoglobin (Hgb), haematocrit (Hct), platelets (Pit), and the types of white blood cells (WBC).

Computed Tomography scan; a non-invasive radiologic study that shows a detailed cross-section of organ and tissue structure.

A disease of the heart muscle causing enlargement and weakening of the heart.

The creatinine level is an indication of kidney function. It is a waste product produced by the muscles and released into the blood stream. Creatinine levels may be increased with kidney disease. Abnormal creatinine levels can also be caused by some medications.

This is a test that examines the compatibility of the transplant recipient’s blood with that of the donor. A high positive cross-match may indicate the need for higher levels of immunosuppression. A negative cross-match means that there is no reaction between the donor and recipient.

CMV; a virus commonly seen following transplantation that can cause an infection in the gastrointestinal tract, blood, liver, lungs, and/or eyes. CMV is a type of herpes virus

Also called non-living or deceased donors (preferred term), are those who donate their organs or tissue after they have died.

A patient who has been placed on the national waiting list for solid organ transplantation.

Occurs when a person’s heart stops and cannot be resuscitated. Just like brain death, there is no recovery from circulatory death (also known as cardiac death).

The time an organ is without blood circulation and is kept cold—from the time the organ is removed from the donor to the time it is transplanted into the recipient. In surgery, the time between the chilling of a tissue, organ, or body part after its blood supply has been reduced or cut off and the time it is warmed by having its blood supply restored. This can occur while the organ is still in the body or after it is removed from the body if the organ is to be used for transplantation.

Forms the supportive and connective structures of the body, such as tendons, ligaments cartilage, bone and fascia (the silver coloured covering of muscles). Connective tissue surrounds many organs.

The transparent outer covering of the eye’s iris and pupil. Corneas can be donated and transplanted to restore sight for people with damaged corneas.

A medicine that suppresses the body’s immune response thereby preventing organ rejection.

Is a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is decreased because the heart’s main pumping chamber, the left ventricle, is enlarged and weakened. In some cases, it prevents the heart from relaxing and filling with blood as it should. Over time, it can affect the other heart chambers.

D

A disease originating in the pancreas related to insulin production that causes high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

This is the “bottom” number of blood pressure measurement when the heart muscle is at rest, expanding and filling with blood.

A medicine that helps to remove excess fluid from the body tissue by causing the body to excrete sodium. Furosemide (Lasix®) and spironolactone (Aldactone®) are diuretics. These medications will increase urine output.

A person who has been declared dead and whose organs and/or tissues have been donated for transplantation.

Defined in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Conditions of Participation as an individual who has completed a course offered or approved by the OPO and designed in conjunction with the tissue and eye bank community in the methodology for approaching potential donor families and requesting organ donation. The interpretation of this rule allows for some degree of flexibility.

The act of giving organ(s), tissue(s), or blood to someone else without compensation.

A mechanical process designed to remove toxic substances from the blood, including correcting the balance of fluids and chemicals in the body and removing wastes when the kidneys are unable to do so. See haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Documentation of an individual’s decision to donate organs, eyes, and/or tissues after death. Usually designated on a driver’s license or through a Provincial donor registry.

Documentation of an individual’s decision to donate organs, eyes, and/or tissues after death, usually designated on a driver’s license or through a national donor registry.

The number of deaths in the population divided by the average population (or the population at midyear) is the crude death rate. . A death rate can also be tabulated according to age or cause.

To depart from life; to die.

Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cause vomiting or diarrhea may lead to dehydration. There are a number of other causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, kidney disease, and medications that cause voiding (diuretics).

One clue to dehydration is a rapid drop in weight. A loss of over 10%  is considered severe.

Symptoms and signs of dehydration include increasing thirst, dry mouth, weakness or lightheadedness (particularly if worse on standing), and a darkening of the urine or a decrease in urination. Severe dehydration can lead to changes in the body’s chemistry and kidney failure which may be life-threatening.

Dehydration due to diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity (disease) and mortality (death) in children. The young child has a more rapid turnover of body fluids than an adult. In rehydrating a child, there is less margin for error than for an adult. The younger the child, the more careful the rehydration must be. Cases that demand particular attention to detail are those in which organ function (especially skin, heart, brain, or kidney) is critically compromised. Overhydration may be as serious as severe dehydration in children and rehydration should therefore be done under medical supervision.

The best way to treat dehydration is to prevent it from occurring. If one suspects excessive fluid loss, notify a physician. Intravenous or oral fluid replacement may be needed.

The heart is displaced to the right (from its usual location in the left chest). There is no anatomic alteration in the heart itself, just in its location. Dextroposition occurs when the contents of the left side of the chest shove the heart to the right or when the contents of the right chest are reduced (for example, by collapse of the right lung) and the heart moves toward the sparsely occupied space on the right.

A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems.

A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems.

A disorder in which the chambers of the heart are dilated (enlarged) because the heart muscle is weakened and cannot pump effectively. There are many causes, the most common being myocardial ischemia (not enough oxygen supplied to the heart muscle) due to coronary artery disease.

The system of organs responsible for getting food into and out of the body and for making use of food to keep the body healthy. The digestive system includes the salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The digestive system’s organs are joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. Inside this tube is a lining called the mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food. Two solid organs, the liver and the pancreas (both of which are embryologically derived from the digestive tract), produce digestive juices that reach the intestine through small tubes known as ducts. In addition, parts of other organ systems (for instance, nerves and blood) play a major role in the digestive system.

Deoxyribonucleic acid. One of two types of molecules that encode genetic information. (The other is RNA. In humans DNA is the genetic material; RNA is transcribed from it. In some other organisms, RNA is the genetic material and, in reverse fashion, the DNA is transcribed from it.)

DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak hydrogen bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The molecule forms a double helix in which two strands of DNA spiral about one other. The double helix looks something like an immensely long ladder twisted into a helix, or coil. The sides of the “ladder” are formed by a backbone of sugar and phosphate molecules, and the “rungs” consist of nucleotide bases joined weakly in the middle by the hydrogen bonds.

There are four nucleotides in DNA. Each nucleotide contains a base: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T). Base pairs form naturally only between A and T and between G and C so the base sequence of each single strand of DNA can be simply deduced from that of its partner strand.

The use of a carefully controlled electric shock, administered either through a device on the exterior of the chest wall or directly to the exposed heart muscle, to normalize the rhythm of the heart or restart it.

The heart is reversed and is in the right side of the chest rather than in its normal location on the left. This is a true anatomic reversal. With dextrocardia, for example, the apex (tip) of the heart points to the right rather than (as is normal) to the left. Dextrocardia occurs in an abnormal condition present at birth (congenital) called Kartagener’s syndrome.

E

An ultrasound of the heart that uses sound waves to check the size, shape and motion of the heart. It also checks the heart valves and the heart pumping function. An ECHO can detect fluid in the sac around your heart (pericardial effusion). The radiology technician or radiologist applies a gel to the chest. A wand with a rotating ball in placed on the chest and gently moved around the area to take pictures of the heart.

Swelling of the tissue, particularly in the face, hands, legs and ankles. Diuretics may help to decrease edema.

The dissolved form of a mineral found in the blood that helps maintain bodily functions and fluid balance. Sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus are some of the electrolytes found in your body.

A non-invasive test that records or display a persons heartbeat,- the electrical activity of the heart.

A protein made in the body that is capable of changing a substance from one form to another.

The last phase in the course of a progressive disease. As in end-stage liver disease, end-stage lung disease, end-stage renal disease, end-stage cancer, etc. The term “end stage” has come to replace “terminal”.

The last phase in the course of a progressive disease. As in end-stage liver disease, end-stage lung disease, end-stage renal disease, end-stage cancer, etc. The term “end stage” has come to replace “terminal”.

particular type of inflammatory reaction of the skin in which there is erythema (reddening), edema(swelling), papules (bumps), and crusting of the skin followed, finally, by lichenification (thickening) and scaling of the skin. Eczema characteristically causes itching and burning of the skin.

Atopic eczema, which is also called atopic dermatitis, is a very common skin problem. It may start in infancy, later in childhood, or in adulthood. Once it gets underway, it tends not to go quickly away.

Too much fluid within the fibrous sac (pericardium) that surrounds the heart. The inner surface of the pericardium is lined by a layer of flat cells (mesothelial cells) that normally secrete a small amount of fluid, which acts as a lubricant to allow normal heart movement within the chest. A pericardial effusion involves the presence of an excessive amount of pericardial fluid, a pale yellow serous fluid, within the pericardium.

A woman who provides her own eggs for another woman or couple to use in creating a pregnancy through in vitro fertilization. Egg donors may be paid for their services, and both known and anonymous egg donors may be used in the IVF process. For a woman to serve as an egg donor, she must undergo health screening tests and take medications to stimulate the production of eggs by her ovaries. She must also undergo a minor surgical procedure known as egg retrieval in order to harvest the eggs from her ovaries.

The last phase in the course of a progressive disease. As in end-stage liver disease, end-stage lung disease, end-stage renal disease, end-stage cancer, etc. The term “end stage” has come to replace “terminal”.

Enlargement of the heart. An enlarged heart is a descriptive term that is used to refer to the physical finding of an enlarged heart and is not a disease itself. Heart enlargement can be caused by a number of different conditions including diseases of the heart muscle or heart valves, high blood pressure, arrhythmias, and pulmonary hypertension. Enlarged heart can also sometimes accompany longstanding anemia and thyroid disease, among other conditions. Treatment and prognosis are dependent upon the underlying cause. Also referred to medically as cardiomegaly.

An oil derived from a natural substance, usually either for its healing properties or as a perfume. Some pharmaceuticals, and many over-the-counter or ‘holistic’ remedies, are based on or contain essential oils. For example, products containing camphor or eucalyptus essential oils can help relieve congestive coughs, and many essential oils are used in the practice of aromatherapy

A place to store corneas (the clear “front window” of the eye) for use in future keratoplasty (surgery to replace the cornea).

A routine part of every routine eye exam that measures the fluid pressure inside the eye. The test is called tonometry.

Increased pressure within the eye can be a sign of glaucoma, a common and potentially very serious eye problem, if it is not detected and treated promptly.

The pressure inside the eye is measured from the outside. The pressure can be measured without anything touching the eye. The patient looks up close at an instrument that blows a small puff of air into the eye and then uses a special kind of sensor (like a tiny radar detector) to detect the amount of indentation that the air puff causes on the surface of the eye. This indentation is normal and only lasts for a fraction of a second.

If patients need to have their eye pressure measured in a setting where this type of machine is not available (as in an emergency room), the pressure can be measured with an instrument resembling a pen. One end of the instrument is placed on the surface of the eyeball. This feels like having a contact lens put in the eye. However, tonometry does not cause significant pain and it is risk-free.

A hormonal compound that is made by the body in response to pain or extreme physical exertion. Endorphins are similar in structure and effect to opiate drugs. They are responsible for the so-called runner’s high, and release of these essential compounds permits humans to endure childbirth, accidents, and strenuous everyday activities.

A hormonal compound that is made by the body in response to pain or extreme physical exertion. Endorphins are similar in structure and effect to opiate drugs. They are responsible for the so-called runner’s high, and release of these essential compounds permits humans to endure childbirth, accidents, and strenuous everyday activities.

The occurrence of more cases of a disease than would be expected in a community or region during a given time period. A sudden severe outbreak of a disease such as SARS. From the Greek “epi-“, “upon” + “demos”, “people or population” = “epidemos” = “upon the population.” See also: Endemic; Pandemic.

The upper or outer layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin. The epidermis is mostly made up of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cells. Under the squamous cells are round cells called basal cells. The deepest part of the epidermis also contains melanocytes. These cells produce melanin, which gives the skin its color.

The other main layer of the skin is the dermis, the inner layer of skin, that contains blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles, and glands. These glands produce sweat, which helps regulate body temperature, and sebum, an oily substance that helps keep the skin from drying out. Sweat and sebum reach the skin’s surface through tiny openings called pores.

A clouding of the lens of the eye. The normally clear aspirin-sized lens of the eye starts to become cloudy. The result is much like smearing grease over the lens of a camera. It impairs normal vision.

There are many causes of cataracts including cortisone medication, trauma, diabetes, many other diseases and simply aging. Cataracts will affect almost all people if they are fortunate enough to live long enough.

The symptoms of cataracts include double or blurred vision and unusual sensitivity to light and glare. Cataracts can be diagnosed when the doctor examines the eyes with a viewing instrument.

The ideal treatment for cataracts is surgical implantation of a new synthetic lens after removing the natural cloudy lens. Wearing sunglasses can help prevent cataracts.

F

Laws ensuring legal authority to proceed with organ procurement without consent from the family based on a legal indication of the deceased’s consent for donation, such as on a driver’s license or other official document.

One of many molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid found in fats and oils and in cell membranes as a component of phospholipids and glycolipids. (Carboxylic acid is an organic acid containing the functional group -COOH.)

Fatty acids come from animal and vegetable fats and oils. Fatty acids play roles outside the body; they are used as lubricants, in cooking and food engineering, and in the production of soaps, detergents, and cosmetics.

A coagulation factor needed for the normal clotting of blood. Also known as proaccelerin.

1. In general, not obligatory but rather capable of adapting to different conditions.
2. In bacteriology, bacteria that can grow under either aerobic or anaerobic circumstances (with or without oxygen).

Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it and, specifically, failure of the heart to pump blood with normal efficiency. When this occurs, the heart is unable to provide adequate blood flow to other organs such as the brain, liver and kidneys. Heart failure may be due to failure of the right or left or both ventricles. The signs and symptoms depend upon which side of the heart is failing. They can include shortness of breath (dyspnea), asthma due to the heart (cardiac asthma), pooling of blood (stasis) in the general body (systemic) circulation or in the liver’s (portal) circulation, swelling (edema), blueness or duskiness (cyanosis), and enlargement (hypertrophy) of the heart. There are many causes of congestive heart failure including: (1) coronary artery disease leading to heart attacks and heart muscle weakness, (2) primary heart muscle weakness from viral infections or toxins such as prolonged alcohol exposure, (3) heart valve disease causing heart muscle weakness due to too much leaking of blood or heart muscle stiffness from a blocked valve, and (4) hypertension (high blood pressure). Rarer causes include hyperthyroidism (high thyroid hormone), vitamin deficiency, and excess amphetamine (“speed”) use. The aim of therapy is to improve the pumping function of the heart. General treatment includes salt restriction, diuretics (to get rid of excess fluid), digoxin (to strengthen the heart), and other medications. Specific treatment of congestive heart failure needs also to be directed toward the specific underlying cause of the problem.

A genetic disorder of the heart characterized by increased growth (hypertrophy) in thickness of the wall of the left ventricle, the largest of the four chambers of the heart.

Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM) can surface any time in life. It may, in a worst-case scenario, lead to death. One in about 500 people have FHCM. Five to 10%of people with FHCM suffer fatal cardiac arrest. It is the leading cause of sudden death in athletes and young people.

The family structure and relationships within the family, including information about diseases in family members.

Family history provides a ready view of problems or illnesses within the family and facilitates analysis of inheritance or familial patterns.

A test to determine how much glucose (sugar) is in a blood sample after an overnight fast. The fasting blood glucose test is commonly used to detect diabetes mellitus. A blood sample is taken in a lab, physician’s office, or hospital. The test is done in the morning, before the person has eaten. The normal range for blood glucose is 70 to 100 mg/dl. Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dl are referred to as impaired fasting glucose or pre-diabetes. Diabetes is typically diagnosed when fasting blood glucose levels are 126 mg/dl or higher.

One of many molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid found in fats and oils and in cell membranes as a component of phospholipids and glycolipids. (Carboxylic acid is an organic acid containing the functional group -COOH.)

Fatty acids come from animal and vegetable fats and oils. Fatty acids play roles outside the body; they are used as lubricants, in cooking and food engineering, and in the production of soaps, detergents, and cosmetics.

A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of weariness and tiredness. Fatigue can be acute and come on suddenly or chronic and persist.

The continuation of the external iliac artery after it passes under the inguinal ligament. The femoral arteries supply oxygenated blood from the heart to the lower extremities.

The single bone in the thigh, which is the largest bone in the human body. Also known as the thighbone.

A small sore situated on the face or in the mouth that causes pain, burning, or itching before bursting and crusting over. The favorite locations are on the lips, chin or cheeks and in the nostrils. Less frequented sites are the gums or roof of the mouth (the palate).

The parts of fruits and vegetables that cannot be digested. Fiber is of vital importance to digestion; it helps the body move food through the digestive tract, reduces serum cholesterol, and contributes to disease protection. Also known as bulk and roughage.

An abnormal and irregular heart rhythm in which there are rapid uncoordinated fluttering contractions of the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. Ventricular fibrillation disrupts the synchrony between the heartbeat and the pulse beat. Ventricular fibrillation is commonly associated with heart attacks and scarring of the heart muscle from previous heart attacks. Ventricular fibrillation is life threatening.

A type of cell found in connective tissue throughout the body that produces collagen and other proteins found in the extracellular (between cells) spaces.

An adequate intake of folic acid appears important to the health of arteries, reducing the risk of second heart attacks and strokes (it may do so by lowering the level of homocysteine). Folic acid also may lower the risk of stomach cancer.

An instrument that has two blades and a handle and is used for handling, grasping, or compressing.

The percentage of blood that is pumped out of a filled ventricle as a result of a heartbeat. The heart does not eject all the blood in the ventricle. Only about two-thirds of the blood is normally pumped out with each beat, and that fraction is referred to as the ejection fraction. The ejection fraction is an indicator of the heart’s health. If the heart is diseased from a heart attack or another heart condition, the ejection fraction may decrease.

G

Swelling or enlargement of the gums. Gingival hypertrophy is a side effect of cyclosporine and some seizure medications. Gum overgrowth may be controlled or decreased through good oral hygiene, surgical gum reduction, and changes in immunosuppression.

A type of sugar in the blood that supplies energy to the cell. Glucose levels may vary with diet, medications, stress, and organ dysfunction.

A disease or disorder related to heredity, birth or origin.

A transplanted organ or tissue.

The length of time an organ functions successfully after being transplanted.

The gastrin blood test measures the amount of the hormone gastrin in blood.

Gas is air in the intestine that is passed through the rectum. Air that moves from the digestive tract through the mouth is called belching.Gas is normally formed in the intestines as your body digests food.Gas can make you feel bloated. It can cause crampy or colicky pains in your belly.

Gas can be caused by certain foods you eat. You may have gas if you:

  • Eat foods that are hard to digest, such as fiber. Sometimes, adding more fiber into your diet can cause temporary gas. Your body may adjust and stop producing gas over time.

  • Eat or drink something your body cannot tolerate. For example, some people have lactose intolerance and cannot eat or drink dairy products.

General anesthesia is treatment with certain medicines that puts you into a deep sleep so you do not feel pain during surgery. After you receive these medicines, you will not be aware of what is happening around you.

Most times, a doctor called an anesthesiologist will give you the anesthesia. Sometimes, a certified and registered nurse anesthetist will take care of you.

The medicine is given into your vein. You may be asked to breathe in (inhale) a special gas through a mask. Once you are asleep, the doctor may insert a tube into your windpipe (trachea) to help you breathe and protect your lungs.

You will be watched very closely while you are asleep. Your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing will be monitored. The health care provider taking care of you can change how deeply asleep you are during the surgery.

You will not move, feel any pain, or have any memory of the procedure because of this medicine.

Gastritis occurs when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed or swollen.

Gastritis can last for only a short time (acute gastritis). It may also linger for months to years (chronic gastritis).

The most common causes of gastritis are:

  • Certain medicines, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen and other similar drugs

  • Heavy alcohol drinking

  • Infection of the stomach with a bacteria called Helicobacter pylori

Giant cell arteritis is inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head, neck, upper body and arms. It is also called temporal arteritis.

Giant cell arteritis affects medium-to-large arteries. It causes inflammation, swelling, tenderness, and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head, neck, upper body, and arms. It most commonly occurs in the arteries around the temples (temporal arteries). These arteries branch off from the carotid artery in the neck. In some cases, the condition can occur in medium-to-large arteries in other places in the body as well.

The cause of the condition is unknown. It is believed to be due in part to a faulty immune response. The disorder has been linked to some infections and to certain genes.

Giant cell arteritis is more common in people with another inflammatory disorder known as polymyalgia rheumatica. Giant cell arteritis almost always occurs in people over age 50. It is most common in people of northern European descent. The condition may run in families.

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve. This nerve sends the images you see to your brain.

Most often, optic nerve damage is caused by increased pressure in the eye. This is called intraocular pressure.

Glaucoma is the second most common cause of blindness. There are four major types of glaucoma:

  • Open-angle glaucoma
  • Angle-closure glaucoma, also called closed-angle glaucoma
  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucoma

The front part of the eye is filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor. This fluid is made in an area behind the colored part of the eye (iris). It leaves the eye through channels where the iris and cornea meet. This area is called the anterior chamber angle, or the angle. The cornea is the clear covering on the front of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and angle.

Anything that slows or blocks the flow of this fluid will cause pressure to build up in the eye.

  • In open-angle glaucoma, the increase in pressure is often small and slow.
  • In closed-angle glaucoma, the increase is often high and sudden.
  • Either type can damage the optic nerve.

Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma.

  • The cause is unknown. The increase in eye pressure happens slowly over time. You cannot feel it.
  • The increased pressure pushes on the optic nerve. Damage to the optic nerve causes blind spots in your vision.
  • Open-angle glaucoma tends to run in families. Your risk is higher if you have a parent or grandparent with open-angle glaucoma. People of African descent are also at higher risk for this disease.

Closed-angle glaucoma occurs when the fluid is suddenly blocked and cannot flow out of the eye. This causes a quick, severe rise in eye pressure.

  • Dilating eye drops and certain medicines may trigger an acute glaucoma attack.
  • Closed-angle glaucoma is an emergency.
  • If you have had acute glaucoma in one eye, you are at risk for it in the second eye. Your health care provider is likely to treat your second eye to prevent a first attack in that eye.

Secondary glaucoma occurs due to a known cause. Both open- and closed-angle glaucoma can be secondary when caused by something known. Causes include:

  • Medicines such as corticosteroids
  • Eye diseases, such as uveitis (an inflammation of the middle layer of the eye)
  • Diseases such as diabetes
  • Eye injury

Congenital glaucoma occurs in babies.

  • It often runs in families.
  • It is present at birth.
  • It is caused when the eye does not develop normally.

Gout is a type of arthritis. It occurs when uric acid builds up in blood and causes inflammation in the joints.

Acute gout is a painful condition that often affects only one joint. Chronic gout is the repeated episodes of pain and inflammation. More than one joint may be affected.

Gout is caused by having higher-than-normal level of uric acid in your body. This may occur if:

  • Your body makes too much uric acid
  • Your body has a hard time getting rid of uric acid

When uric acid builds up in the fluid around the joints (synovial fluid), uric acid crystals form. These crystals cause the joint to become inflamed, causing pain, swelling and warmth.

The exact cause is unknown. Gout may run in families. The problem is more common in men, in women after menopause, and people who drink alcohol. As people become older, gout becomes more common.

The condition may also develop in people with:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney disease
  • Obesity
  • Sickle cell anemia and other anemias
  • Leukemia and other blood cancers

Gout may occur after taking medicines that interfere with the removal of uric acid from the body. People who take certain medicines, such as hydrochlorothiazide and other water pills, may have a higher level of uric acid in the blood.

H

A measurement of the amount of red blood cells in the blood.

A bruise with swelling caused by the accumulation of blood in tissue.

A substance in red blood cells that gives blood its characteristic red color. Hemoglobin contains iron and protein. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

A family of viruses that cause infection in humans.

Excessive hair growth. Hirsutism is a common side effect of cyclosporine and is seen in both male and female transplant recipients who receive cyclosporine.

A high level of fats (triglycerides or cholesterol) in the blood. This can be caused by diet, genetic disorders, or medications.

High blood pressure.

A muscular organ that pumps blood through the body. The heart can be donated and transplanted.

Prevent the back flow or leakage of blood as it is being pumped through the chambers inside of the heart. Heart valves can be donated and transplanted.

A treatment for kidney failure in which the patient’s blood is passed through a filtering membrane to remove excess fluid and wastes.

The examination or testing of antigens to determine if a donor organ will “match” and be compatible with a potential recipient’s system. This routine test is often called tissue-typing and helps identify the most suitable recipient for a donated organ.

A genetically determined series of markers (molecules) located on human white blood cells (leukocytes) and on tissues that are inherited from both biological parents. HLA matching is important for compatibility between donor and recipient.

I

A specialized system of cells and proteins that protect the body from organisms that may cause infection or disease.

The ability of the body to resist a specific disease.

Providing the body with protection from certain diseases through vaccinations.

The body’s natural defence against foreign objects or organisms that invade the body, such as bacteria or transplanted organs.

Describes the immune system of a transplant recipient which is weakened or inhibited by certain medications. Specific medications (such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and prednisone) are used to lower the ability of the immune system to attack foreign cells (the transplanted tissue). Immunosuppression will help decrease the body’s ability to reject the transplanted organ.

Organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses that invade the body and reproduce, causing a variety of symptoms.

A hormone secreted in the pancreas by the Islets of Langerhans that regulates sugar metabolism. Insulin helps the body use sugar and other carbohydrates. As insulin is released in the body, the blood glucose level decreases.

Within the blood stream; fluids and medications may be given intravenously as well as by mouth (PO).

Relating to an organ being damaged or destroyed by a disease or condition of unknown origin.

Chemical agents that cause the human body not to produce antibodies that normally fight off foreign material in the body. The production of these antibodies needs to be suppressed in order to permit the acceptance of a donor organ by the recipient’s body.

The process of reaching a voluntary agreement based on a full disclosure and full understanding of what will take place. Informed consent often refers to the process of making decisions regarding participation in research as well as undergoing medical procedures, including the decision to donate the organs of a loved one.

The portion of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the anus, consisting of the stomach, the upper segment (small intestine) and lower segment (large intestine.) The intestines can be donated and transplanted.

J

K

Pair of organs that maintain proper water and electrolyte balance, regulate acid-base concentration, and filter metabolic waste which is excreted as urine. Kidneys can be donated by deceased and living donors to be transplanted.

L

Cells produced by the lymph glands that are responsible for immunity and defend the body against infection and foreign substances by producing antibodies and other substances.

Fibrous bands or sheets that link two or more bones, cartilages, or structures together. Ligaments provide stability during rest and movement and protect against excessive movements such as hyper-extension or hyper-flexion. Ligaments can be transplanted

A large reddish-brown organ that secretes bile and is active in the formation of certain blood proteins and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The liver, like the kidneys, assists in the removal of waste and toxins from the blood stream. The liver can be donated by deceased donors, and a liver lobe (section) can be provided by a living donor to be transplanted. The donor’s liver will grow to full size, and the transplanted lobe will too.

Person who donates an organ or tissue while alive.

The organs that enable breathing to take place, providing life-sustaining oxygen to the body and its organs. Air is inhaled into the lungs and oxygen in the air is exchanged for carbon dioxide that is then exhaled. The exchange happens in the blood as it circulates through the sponge-like lung tissue. The lungs can be donated and transplanted, and a lung lobe can be donated by a living donor.

The lymphocytotoxin crossmatch test detects antibodies in the recipient that react with donor HLA antigens prior to transplantation. Lymphocytotoxin crossmatch tests are used primarily for transplant candidates to assess the suitability of a potential donor. A positive lymphocytotoxin crossmatch identifies antibodies responsible for hyper acute rejection of kidney grafts and is therefore a clear contraindication to transplantation.

M

A mineral required for normal bodily function. Magnesium is involved in nerve, skeletal muscle, heart, and cell function. It is also involved in blood clotting and the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins.

The degree of compatibility or likeness between a donor and a recipient.

The list that is generated when an organ donor’s information is entered into the national waiting list computer system to identify potential recipients

A condition or disease related to dysfunction in the chemical processes and activities of the body (i.e., metabolism)

Woman having given birth to one or more Children.

N

Kidney damage, usually as a result of medications or other substances.

Failure to follow instructions for medical care. This may include not taking medications as prescribed, not obtaining labs as instructed, or missing clinic appointments and tests. Non-adherence is a significant post-transplant issue that often results in rejection, infection, an ultimely loss of the graft.

Woman never having given birth to a baby

O

A part of the body, made up of various tissues, which performs a particular function. Transplantable organs are: heart, intestines, liver, lungs, kidneys, and pancreas.

Giving an organ or a part of an organ to be transplanted into another person. Organ donation can occur with a deceased donor, who can give kidneys, pancreas, liver, lungs, heart, intestinal organs, and with a living donor, who can give a kidney or a portion of the liver, lung, or intestine.

Methods used to maintain the quality of organs between removal from the donor and transplantation into recipient. These methods include preservation solutions, pumps, and cold storage. Preservation times can vary from 2 to 48 hours depending on the type of organ being preserved.

The National Organ Transplant Act that mandated establishments and Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of the nation’s organ procurement, donation and transplantation system by increasing the availability of and access to donor organs for patients with end-stage organ failure. The Act stipulated that the network be a non-profit, private sector entity whose members are all S0uth African transplant centres, organ procurement organizations and histocompatibility laboratories.

National organizations throughout South Africa that are responsible for increasing the number of registered donors in their province service areas, and for coordinating the donation process when actual donors become available. Senior Medical professional’s evaluate potential donors, discuss donation with surviving family members, and arrange for the surgical removal and transport of donated organs. To increase donor registration by implement community outreach strategies to encourage people to sign up in their province for the National organ and tissue donor registry.

P

A bacterial infection of the lungs that is more common in people who are immunosuppressed. Transplant recipients are usually prescribed an antibiotic (Bactrim®/Septra®) to prevent this type of pneumonia.

A type of blood cell that is involved in the clotting process. Platelets help stop bleeding at the site of the injury by clumping and forming a clot. If the platelet count is low, there is an increased risk of bleeding.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease; a wide spectrum of viral disorders associated with the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) that may range from a self-limiting mononucleosis (“mono”, glandular fever) to a type of lymphoma, or cancer f the lymph nodes. PTLD is a complication of a suppressed immune system and occurs in only a small percentage of patients. Treatment includes lowering immunosuppression and administering antiviral medications.

A mineral required for normal body functioning. Potassium is important in helping the heart, nerves, and muscles function properly. Potassium also helps change carbohydrates into energy and in forming proteins. The kidneys excrete any extra potassium in the body. It is important to follow potassium levels after transplant because some anti-rejection medications can cause an increase in the potassium level. If the potassium level is too high, there is a risk for abnormal heartbeat patterns (arrhythmias). Some diuretics can cause low potassium levels.

Antibiotics or antivirals that are prescribed to prevent certain infections in a specific group of patients who are at a higher risk for these infections. For example, patients who are at risk for CMV may receive prophylactic (preventative) treatment with ganciclovir or valganciclovir.

Long, irregularly shaped gland that lies behind the stomach. Some glands in the pancreas secrete insulin. Pancreas transplants give patients with diabetes a chance to become independent of insulin injections. In addition to insulin, the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes (into the small intestine) that aid in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

A process of filtering waste using the peritoneal membrane inside the abdomen. The abdomen is filled with special solutions that help remove toxins. The solutions remain in the abdomen for a time and then are drained out. This form of dialysis can be performed at home, but must be done every day.

The surgical procedure of removing an organ, corneas or other tissue(s) from a donor. See Recovery.

Staff member in the medical profession, typically a nurse, paramedic or other medically trained individual who is responsible for evaluating potential donors, discussing donation with family members, medically managing the donor prior to the recovery of organs and tissues and arranging for the donation process (removal and transport of donated organs).

R

A process in which the body’s immune system attacks the transplanted organ, usually resulting in damage to that organ.

A term that refers to the kidney or having to do with the kidney.

In the context of organ and tissue transplantation, this is the patient receiving the donated organ or tissue.

In the context of organ and tissue transplantation, refers to the process of removing organs and tissues from the donor.

The body’s way of protecting itself against a foreign invader such as infectious germs. The body sees the transplanted organ or tissue as a foreign invader and attempts to destroy it. Acute rejection happens very quickly; chronic rejection is the slow failure of a donated organ to function.

A  USA law passed in 1986 requiring hospitals to have a policy in place requiring all families of suitable donors to be asked to give consent to their loved one’s organs and tissues to be used for transplant. This law is expected to increase the number of donated organs and tissues for transplantation by giving more people the opportunity to donate.

A healthcare professional who discusses organ donation with surviving family members of a potential donor in order to obtain their consent for donation to occur.

S

A viral infection caused by the herpes zoster virus that usually affects an area by a nerve, resulting in fluid-filled blisters and pain. Shingles is most commonly seen on the neck, abdomen and legs. The virus can affect the nerves of the eye.

A type of salt found in the blood and required by the body to maintain the balance between electrolytes and water.

Corticosteroids; hormones secreted by the adrenal gland, located above the kidney. This hormone can also be manufactured. It is prescribed through medications such as prednisone/prednisolone. Steroids can help prevent rejection and may also be prescribed in higher dosages to treat rejection.

The “top number” of blood pressure measurement. The systolic pressure measures the pressure as the heart muscle contracts to pump blood around the body.

This is the largest organ of the body and has several different functions (e.g., protection from infection, fluid balance, cooling). Skin grafts can save the life a burn victim and can provide severely scarred individuals with a better quality of life.

In the context of transplantation, an indication of the degree of medical urgency for patients awaiting heart, kidney, lung or liver transplants.

T

T cells are a type of lymphocyte, or white blood cell that develops in the thymus gland which is located in the upper chest in front of the heart. T cells are associated with acquired immunity, or the ability of the body to fight an infection or foreign substance that it was exposed to in the past.

T cells play a major role in the rejection process.

A fungal infection that looks like white plaques or spots in the mouth (oral mucosa), throat, and on the tongue. Patients who are immunosuppressed are at greater risk for developing thrush.

A tough, flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects muscles to bones. The skeletal muscles move the bones for walking, jumping, lifting, etc. by contracting and pulling the bones. The tendon attaches to the muscle and bone and transmits the force of muscle contraction to the bone. Tendons can be transplanted. See Connective Tissue.

A body part consisting of similar cells that perform a special function. Examples of tissues that can be transplanted are bones, corneas, heart valves, ligaments, veins, and tendons.

A procedure in which the tissues of a prospective donor and recipient are tested to identify the human leukocyte antigens (HLA).

The transfer of cells (e.g. stem cells), tissue, or organs from one person to another.

A graft organ,tissue,or cells transplantation between genetically different members of the same species (not identical twins)

Receiving a transplant of one’s own cell or tissues. This type of transplantation can be used to repair or replace damaged tissue. For example, autologous bone marrow transplantation permits the use of strong cancer therapies that can damage bone marrow. Bone marrow is removed prior to treatment and once the treatment is completed marrow that has not been affected by the therapy is transplanted back into the patient.

A transplant centre staff member responsible for managing the care and progress of potential transplant recipients before, during and after the transplantation.Transplant coordinators aren’t involved in the decisions about where organs will end up. That happens very nearby, however, within the walls of the National Transplant Organisation

A person who has received a tissue or organ transplant.

U

A test that displays internal bodily organs, blood vessels, and ducts using sound waves. An ultrasound of the heart, often called an echocardiogram (ECHO), may be obtained to examine the size of the heart and the valves, fluid in the sac around the heart, and the heart pumping function.

Urinalysis is a series of tests on your pee. Doctors use it to check for signs of common conditions or diseases. Other names for it are urine test, urine analysis, and UA.

You may have a urinalysis as part of a routine check of your overall health, for instance as part of an annual physical. Urinalysis is one way to find certain illnesses in their earlier stages. They include:

  • Kidney disease

  • Liver disease

  • Diabetes

Your doctor may also want to test your pee if you’re getting ready to have surgery or are about to be admitted to the hospital. Urinalysis can be part of a pregnancy checkup, too.

V

The measurement of temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory (breathing) rate.

A transplant that is composed of several kinds of tissue such as skin, bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue, VCAs include hand, arm, or face transplants. “Vascularized” means that the grafts require surgical connection of blood vessels to function.

W

To slowly withdraw or reduce; Immunosuppression, particularly steroids, may be weaned slowly over time in patients who have not had rejection.

A type of blood cell that fights infection.

A national database maintained of all patients waiting for an organ transplant. It is made up of sub lists of patients waiting for specific organs

X Y Z

An organ or tissue transplanted into a human from a non-human animal.

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